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Publications by dr. Dmitri Jarnikov

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Patents

  • Video Encoding and Decoding; Peter van der Stok, Dmitri Jarnikov; patent (abstract on /off)

    A method of producing encoded video data comprises the steps of: collecting video data, producing a tag identifying the collected video data, encoding the collected video data so as to produce at least two sets of encoded data representing different video quality levels, and attaching the tag to each set of encoded video data. The tag is preferably unique and may be derived from the collected video data.
  • Method and apparatus for smoothing overall quality of video transported over a wireless medium; Peter van der Stok, Dmitri Jarnikov, Clemens C. Wust; patent (abstract on /off)

    A system and method for controlling a scalable video application by modeling it as a Markov decision process. The model is based on measuring the relative progress of the application, where relative progress is the difference between the allocated CPU budget for processing a frame and the actual CPU cycles used in processing a frame. The control strategy is based on the number of levels most recently decoded and the maximum levels that can be decoded for the next frame based on the number of received layers (the maximum quality level) and the budgeted CPU time. The object is to smooth quality transitions between frames by developing a quality level control strategy that minimizes both the number of deadline misses (frame not fully decoded) and the number of quality level changes, while maximizing the quality level. The fewer the number of quality level changes, the smoother the image viewed.

Journal articles

  • Client intelligence for adaptive streaming solutions; Dmitri Jarnikov, Tanir Ozcelebi; Signal Processing: Image Communication, Volume 26, Issue 7, Advances in IPTV Technologies, August 2011, Pages 378-389 (abstract on /off)

    In state-of-the-art adaptive streaming solutions, to cope with varying network conditions, the client side can switch between several video copies encoded at different bit-rates during streaming. Each video copy is divided into chunks of equal duration. To achieve continuous video playback, each chunk needs to arrive at the client before its playback deadline. The perceptual quality of a chunk increases with the chunk size in bits, whereas bigger chunks require more transmission time and, as a result, have a higher risk of missing transmission deadline. Therefore, there is a trade-off between the overall video quality and continuous playback, which can be optimized by proper selection of the next chunk from the encoded versions. This paper proposes a method to compute a set of optimal client strategies for this purpose.
  • Hierarchical resource allocation for robust in-home video streaming; Peter van der Stok, Dmitri Jarnikov, Sergei Kozlov, Michael van Hartskamp, Johan Lukkien; Journal of Systems and Software, Volume 80 , Issue 7 (July 2007), Pages: 951-961 (abstract on /off)

    High quality video streaming puts high demands on network and processor resources. The bandwidth of the communication medium and the timely arrival of the frames necessitate a tight resource allocation. Given the dynamic environment where videos are started and stopped and electro-magnetic perturbations affect the bandwidth of the wireless medium, a framework is needed that reacts timely to the changes in network load and network operational conditions. This paper describes a hierarchical framework, which can handle the dynamic network resource allocation in a timely manner.

Conferences

  • Session-based Watermarking in Live IPTV Environment; Dmitri Jarnikov, Egbert Westerveld, Jeroen M. Doumen; Consumer Electronics (ICCE), 2012 IEEE International Conference on, 650-653 (abstract on /off)

    Protecting content, distributed over IPTV networks, from being illegally redistributed by legal subscribers requires methods beyond traditional conditional access and digital rights management systems. Adding watermarking techniques allows one to trace the user would an infringement have occurred. In this paper we describe a practical way to uniquely watermark content for each receiving device in a live IPTV environment. Special focus is given to finding a solution that fits into existing IPTV infrastructures.
  • Extended Architecture for Home Node Base Stations with Multimedia Services; Andreea Voicu, Dmitri Jarnikov; Consumer Electronics (ICCE), 2011 IEEE International Conference on. Page(s): 767 - 768. (abstract on /off)

    This paper describes the investigation of ways to use the mobile access points (home node base stations, femtocells) for providing TV streaming to the mobile devices inside the home. The research is focused on the differences and commonalities between architectures of the home node base station for different technologies. The result is a general architecture, which can be easily extended to provide live media streaming to mobile devices.
  • On Logical Domains for Flexible Content Protection Systems; Dmitri Jarnikov, Shudong Chen, Jeroen M. Doumen, Johan Lukkien; IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE 10), Las Vegas, USA, 2010. (abstract on /off)

    Modern digital rights management (DRM) systems recognize that users want to play content on multiple devices - the (authorized) domain. However, the concept of domain is often too rigid: typically, the domain size is limited, and it is hard to remove a device and add another. It is even harder to transfer content between domains, and to lend it to friends. This paper analyses the current situation and proposes to introduce logical domains, which support logical operations such as union and intersection. Together with user input on how to adapt his domain, this allows for enough flexibility to keep users happy, and the content secure.
  • Server-guided watermarking for resource-constrained devices; Dmitri Jarnikov, JG Lourens, Egbert Westerveld; IEEE 13th International Symposium on Consumer Electronics (ISCE '09), pp.76-80, 2009. (abstract on /off)

    Distribution of multimedia content to CE devices poses challenges for content owners to protect their products. Conditional access and digital rights management systems are barely sufficient against content redistribution by legal subscribers. Adding watermarking techniques allows one to trace the user would an infringement have occurred. Many CE devices, however, have insufficient processing resources to perform real-time watermarking of video or even audio content. In this paper, we discuss a scheme that enables a fast audio watermarking for multimedia broadcasting to CE devices. The proposed technique reuses existing components of conditional access system. We discuss the implementation of the technique in systems based on Digital Video Broadcasting standards.
  • Using TCP-feedback to optimize transcoding performance; Richard Verhoeven, Dmitri Jarnikov, Johan Lukkien; Digest of Technical Papers 2008 International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE 2008, Las Vegas NV, USA, January 9-13, 2008). (pp. 468-469). Piscataway NJ: IEEE. (abstract on /off)

    This paper describes a method to control a video transcoder based on the actual network conditions. A single TCP connection is used for transport, where the TCP protocol buffer of the sender provides feedback to the transcoder.
  • A Framework for Video Streaming to Resource-Constrained Terminals; Dmitri Jarnikov, Johan Lukkien, Peter van der Stok; EUC 2005: 930-939, Nagasaki, Japan; December 6, 2005 (abstract on /off)

    A large range of devices (from PDA to high-end TV) can receive and decode digital video. However, the capacity of one device is very different from the capacity of another device. Low-end devices require much simpler digital video code than high-end devices, which have spare capacity to enhance the video quality. To optimally serve all these devices, the encoding for one device is different from that for another device. This paper discusses how the same video but differently encoded can be efficiently distributed to a set of receiving devices. The key technology is scalable video coding. The paper shows how a framework assists in adapting the digital code to the changing transmission conditions to optimize the quality rendered at the different devices. The paper concludes with a validation based on a real-time streaming application.
  • Adaptable video streaming over wireless networks; Dmitri Jarnikov, Johan Lukkien, Peter van der Stok; ICCCN 2005, pp 5594, San Diego, USA; October 17, 2005 (abstract on /off)

    The paper addresses the issue of controlling streaming of scalable video over wireless links to resource-constrained devices (terminals). A controller on terminal maximizes user perceived quality taking into account available computing resources and condition of the network. We present a method to decrease an amount of pre-calculated strategies for the controller by exploring the dependency between layers configuration and network conditions.
  • Wireless Streaming based on a Scalability Scheme using Legacy MPEG-2 Decoders; Dmitri Jarnikov, Peter van der Stok, Johan Lukkien; IMSA 2005: 371-376 (abstract on /off)

    In this paper, we present an improved SNR scalable video coding scheme for a wireless video streaming system that efficiently transmits video to multiple devices. The scalable video transmission can adapt to the widely and frequently fluctuating bandwidth while maintaining smooth video watching. The proposed video coding scheme requires standard non-scalable MPEG2 video decoders. The new scheme produces video without dependencies of the Base Layer on an Enhancement Layer and dependencies between frames in an Enhancement Layer. This allows an easy drop of an arbitrary number of frames from an Enhancement Layer and decreases the required bandwidth, which helps to accommodate wireless link fluctuations.
    The paper presents results of an evaluation, where the new scalable video scheme is compared to a non-scalable solution. The attention is drawn to issues such as bandwidth overhead, additional resources needed on the receiver side and bandwidth distribution over the layers.
  • Predictive Control of Video Quality under Fluctuating Bandwidth Conditions; Dmitri Jarnikov, Peter van der Stok, Clemens C. Wust; ICME 2004: 1051-1054 (abstract on /off)

    This work shows that scalable video techniques together with a controlling mechanism for a device that receives and decodes video data provide a solution to some challenges posed by in-home networks. The challenges are resource limitations of devices (processor, memory, etc.) and network (bandwidth). Additionally, a wireless network usually has bandwidth fluctuations that consecutively lead to rapid throughput fluctuations. These rapid changes severely reduce the quality of viewing as perceived by an end user.
    We developed a controller that optimizes user-perceived quality when looking at available input data and available processing power. The quality is optimized by smoothening the quality fluctuations and avoiding deadline misses. The strategy used by the controller is created offline by means of a Markov Decision Process.

Workshops

  • Watermarking for Adaptive Streaming Protocols; Dmitri Jarnikov, Jeroen M. Doumen; 8th VLDB Workshop, SDM 2011, Seattle, WA, USA, September 2, 2011, Proceedings (abstract on /off)

    Online multimedia distribution is often done by means of adaptive streaming protocols. To protect this content, its owners apply a unique watermark to each copy. However, sending a unique copy to each client incurs a prohibitive cost, especially in terms of bandwidth and server load, and embedding a watermark on a client device not only compromises the system security, but also is not feasible in the uncontrolled environment such as the Internet. In this paper, we propose to solve this problem by creating a few streams, each with different but constant watermarks, and force the client to switch between the streams. This will result in a uniquely watermarked stream for the each client. We illustrate our solution on the example of the currently deployed adaptive streaming protocols.
  • Client intelligence for adaptive streaming solutions; Dmitri Jarnikov, Tanir Ozcelebi; IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (2nd International Workshop on IPTV Technologies and Multidisciplinary Applications), 2010. (abstract on /off)

    In state-of-the-art adaptive streaming solutions, to cope with varying network conditions, the client side can switch between several video copies encoded at different bit-rates during streaming. Each video file version is divided into chunks of equal duration. To achieve continuous video playback, each chunk needs to arrive at the client before its playback deadline. The perceptual quality of a chunk increases with the chunk size in bits, whereas bigger chunks require more transmission time. Therefore, there is a trade-off between the overall video quality and continuous playback, which can be optimized by proper selection of the next chunk from the encoded versions. This paper proposes a method to compute a set of optimal client strategies for this purpose.
  • Influence of network awareness on perceived video quality; Dmitri Jarnikov, Peter van der Stok, Johan Lukkien; Presented at RM4NES workshop, 2005. (abstract on /off)

    In this paper, we present a strategy to control a decoder that processes scalable video on a networked terminal. The controller maximizes user perceived quality taking into account available computing resources and condition of the network

Technical reports

  • Techniques for robust video streaming over perturbed wireless network segments; Peter van der Stok, Dmitri Jarnikov, Sergei Kozlov, Jeffrey Kang; PR-TN-2004/00605, Philips Research, 2005

  • Robust scalable video over wireless networks (KISS demonstrator); Harmke de Groot (editor), Iulian Nitescu, Jeffrey Kang, Dmitri Jarnikov, Peter van der Stok; PR-TN-2004/00160, Philips Research, 2004

Book chapters

  • Robust video streaming over wireless in-home networks; Jeffrey Kang, Harmke de Groot, Peter van der Stok, Dmitri Jarnikov, Iulian Nitescu, Felix Ogg; in Dynamic and Robust Streaming in and between Connected Consumer-Electronic Devices, Peter van der Stok (editor), pp 193-212, Kluwer, 2005.

  • Perceived quality of wirelessly transported videos; Reinder Haakma, Dmitri Jarnikov, Peter van der Stok; in Dynamic and Robust Streaming in and between Connected Consumer-Electronic Devices, Peter van der Stok (editor), pp 213-239, Kluwer, 2005.

Theses

  • QoS framework for video streaming in home networks; Dmitri Jarnikov; Eindhoven University of Technology, PhD thesis, August, 2007. (abstract on /off)

    In this thesis we present a new SNR scalable video coding scheme. An important advantage of the proposed scheme is that it requires just a standard video decoder for processing each layer. The quality of the delivered video depends on the allocation of bit rates to the base and enhancement layers. For a given total bit rate, the combination with a bigger base layer delivers higher quality. The absence of dependencies between frames in enhancement layers makes the system resilient to losses of arbitrary frames from an enhancement layer. Furthermore, that property can be used in a more controlled fashion.
    An important characteristic of any video streaming scheme is the ability to handle network bandwidth fluctuations. We made a streaming technique that observes the network conditions and based on the observations reconfigures the layer configuration in order to achieve the best possible quality. A change of the network conditions forces a change in the number of layers or the bit rate of these layers. Knowledge of the network conditions allows delivery of a video of higher quality by choosing an optimal layer configuration. When the network degrades, the amount of data transmitted per second is decreased by skipping frames from an enhancement layer on the sender side. The presented video coding scheme allows skipping any frame from an enhancement layer, thus enabling an efficient real-time control over transmission at the network level and fine-grained control over the decoding of video data. The methodology proposed is not MPEG-2 specific and can be applied to other coding standards.
    We made a terminal resource manager that enables trade-offs between quality and resource consumption due to the use of scalable video coding in combination with scalable video algorithms. The controller developed for the decoding process optimizes the perceived quality with respect to the CPU power available and the amount of input data. The controller does not depend on the type of scalability technique and can therefore be used with any scalable video. The controller uses the strategy that is created offline by means of a Markov Decision Process. During the evaluation it was found that the correctness of the controller behavior depends on the correctness of parameter settings for MDP, so user tests should be employed to find the optimal settings.
  • Towards Balancing Network and Terminal Resources to Improve Video Quality; Dmitri Jarnikov; Eindhoven University of Technology, SAI Technical Report, October, 2003. (abstract on /off)

    This report presents the Towards Balancing Network and Terminal Resources to Improve Video Quality project. It describes research activities, implementation and evaluation of controlling mechanism, which optimizes perceived quality by looking at available input video data and available CPU power of a consumer electronics device connected to a wireless network.

Project deliverables

  • Parameter and resource requirements equivalence classes; Peter van der Stok, L. Steffens; Report (deliverable D3a), Betsy project (IST-004042), 2005

  • Report on the OZONE demonstrators and their assessment; P. Kerbiriou (editor), Harmke de Groot, Peter van der Stok, Dmitri Jarnikov, Iulian Nitescu, Jeffrey Kang, Elena Mumford, Valerie Issarny, Daniele Sacchetti, Angel Talamona, Leal Angelica; Report (deliverable D15), OZONE project (IST-2000-30026), 2004

 
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